Diets containing Escherichia coli-derived phytase on young chickens and turkeys: Effects on performance, metabolizable energy, endogenous secretions, and intestinal morphology
Avian Science Research Centre, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Chestnut House, Marlborough, Wiltshire SN8 1QJ, United Kingdom; University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeo
The aim of this experiment was to compare the responses of young broiler chickens directly with the responses of turkeys to different dietary phytase concentrations. Nine hundred sixty birds (480 female Ross 308 broilers, and 480 female BUT6 turkeys) were reared in 64 floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Each species was fed a nutritionally complete (12.79 MJ/kg of AME, 231 g/kg of CP vs. 11.75 MJ/kg of AME, 285 g/kg of CP for chickens and turkeys, respectively), low-P (28 and 37 g/kg available P for chickens and turkeys, respectively) corn (maize)-soy feed supplemented with either 0, 250, 500, or 2,500 phytase units (phytase/kg of feed) to give a total of 4 diets per species. The study was conducted in a split-plot design and each dietary treatment was replicated 8 times. Performance, AME, sialic acid (SA) excretions, and ileal villus morphology of 21-d-old broiler chickens and turkeys were determined. Overall, chickens grew faster and consumed more than turkeys throughout the study period. Dietary enzyme concentrations linearly increased the feed intake and weight gain of birds. The results were improved, on average, as follows: feed intake by 11.2 and 6.5%, gain by 10.2 and 13.2%, feed efficiency by 0 and 7.6%, AME by 1.4 and 5.7%, and AME intake by 13.1 and 9.8% for chickens and turkeys, respectively. The AME data were subject to a species x phytase interaction, whereby increasing the phytase dosage led to significant increments in parameters for turkeys but not broilers; broilers recovered significantly more energy from the ration than did turkeys. A quadratic relationship existed between dietary AME and phytase concentrations. Turkeys excreted more SA than did chickens in the absence of phytase, whereas supplementation with phytase (250 and 500 phytase units) reduced the excretion of SA in turkeys. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the ileal villus morphometry of the 2 species. We concluded that both species can tolerate phytase concentrations much higher than 1,000 phytase units and that these concentrations have further beneficial effects compared with lower phytase concentrations. The work reported here supports the hypothesis that supplementing turkey diets with phytase will need to be considered independently of chicken diets, considering the components in the diets, such that optimal responses can be obtained. ©2007 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Aves; Escherichia coli; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Zea mays; phytase; animal; animal food; animal husbandry; article; caloric intake; chicken; digestion; drug effect; energy metabolism; enzymology; Escherichia coli; intestine; physiology; poultry; turkey (bird); weight gain; 6-Phytase; Animal Feed; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Chickens; Digestion; Energy Intake; Energy Metabolism; Escherichia coli; Intestines; Poultry; Turkeys; Weight Gain