Comparative evaluation of chemical composition of fermented ground bean flour (Kerstingella geocarpa) cowpea flour (vigna unguiculata) commercial wheat flour (triticum spp.)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
The study was conducted to compare the chemical composition of 3 flour samples: fermented ground bean flour, fermented cowpea flour and commercial wheat flour. Commercial wheat flour was purchased from a local market as well as cowpea and ground bean. The samples were cleaned and sorted, soaked in water at room temperature, dehulled, oven dried at 50°C for 12 h, milled into fine flour. The flours were fermented at room temperature for 3 days, oven dried at 50°C for 12 h and finally milled into flours. These flours were subjected to chemical analysis done in triplicates using standard assay. Mean, standard deviation of the samples were calculated and Duncan's multiple test was used to separate the means. The result indicated that the protein content ranged from 14.71 to 25.39%. The wheat flour had the least value (14.71%) while the ground bean flour and cowpea flour had 25.39 and 24.34%, respectively. The vitamin A composition varied from 10.80 to 29.60 mg/100 g. The wheat flour had the least vitamin A value which was significantly different from the other flours (10.80 vs 29.60 and 18.20 mg/100 g) (p<0.05). The iron composition varied. It ranged from 2.51 to 6.80 mg/100 g. The ground bean flour and the highest iron value (6.80 mg/100 g) while the cowpea flour and wheat flour had 2.51 mg and 4.70 mg/100 g. The calcium composition ranged from 166.10-308.46 mg/100 g. The cowpea flour had the highest value which was significantly different from the other flours (308.46 vs 166.10 and 183.25 mg/100 g) (p<0.05).The zinc composition differed. It varied from 8.30-28.05 mg/100 g. The wheat flour had the least value which was significantly different from the other flours at (8.30 vs 25.22 and 28.05 mg/100 g) (p<0.005). The cowpea flour had the highest zinc value (28.05 mg/100 g). Fermented cowpea and ground bean flours showed higher nutrient content mainly in nutrients of public health importance like Vitamin A and iron. These nutritional qualities calls for a greater attention to the underutilized (ground bean) crop. These flours could as well be incorporated into wheat flour to improve the nutritional qualities of confectionaries and bakery products. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.
calcium; carbohydrate; iodine; iron; magnesium; phosphorus; retinol; riboflavin; thiamine; zinc; Article; ash; bean; chemical analysis; chemical composition; comparative study; cowpea; distillation; fermentation; flour; Kerstingella geocarpa; lipid analysis; moisture; nonhuman; nutrient content; nutritional value; protein content; protein determination; public health; room temperature; titrimetry; wheat; Triticum; Triticum aestivum; Vigna subterranea; Vigna unguiculata