System wide impacts of fuel usage patterns in the Ethiopian highlands: Potentials for breaking the negative reinforcing feedback cycles
Energy for Sustainable Development
ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins, P.O. Box 30677, UN Avenue, Gigiri, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; Institute of Forest Ecology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter Jordanstr. 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; World Agroforestry Centre, P.O. Box 30677, UN Avenue, Gigiri, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Due to scarcity of firewood, farmers in rural Ethiopia are forced to use cattle dung as a complementary energy source. By looking at patterns of firewood and cattle dung use for energy generation and their implications for food crop production, forest regeneration and community level emission reduction potentials, this study explores system interactions using a community living next to the Menagesha Suba state forest in Ethiopia as a case study. Mixed methods were used including household surveys, nutrient content analyses of firewood and cattle dung, and calculations of fuel and emission reductions for four cooking energy efficiency scenarios. It was found that the community and surrounding environment is stuck in a negative feedback cycle. Therefore shifts in current practices and systems are needed to break this cycle, for example by enhancing firewood supply, improving soil fertility, improving energy efficiency and enabling access to carbon financing for emissions reduced. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
crop production; emission control; energy efficiency; fuel; household survey; manure; nutrient cycling; soil fertility; wood; Ethiopian Highlands; Bos
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