Residents' perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth
Department of Geography, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35049, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boreholes; Economic and social effects; Rain; Rivers; Water supply; Water wells; Shallow well; Water delivery system; Water demand; Water distribution systems; artesian well; drinking water; performance assessment; water availability; water demand; water industry; water management; water supply; Africa; Dar es Salaam [Dar es Salaam (RGA)]; Dar es Salaam [Tanzania]; East Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania