Comparative evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of major commercial whole-wheat breads in Nigerian market
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology
Department of Food Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria; Department of Food Science and Tech., Nnamdi Azikiwe University of Tech, Awka, Nigeria
The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D) were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E) served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E) had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3), specific volume (4.38 cm3/g), hydration capacity (4.50%) and compressibility (45%) than the whole wheat breads. No trace of bromate was found in all the bread samples. The proximate analyses for the whole wheat bread showed the moisture content to range from (30.64-38.74%), fat (3.5-5.0%), Fibre (2.5-3.5%) higher than in white bread (26.40, 3.0 and 1.20% respectively). While the whole wheat breads had lower levels of protein (5.25-6.48%), carbohydrate (45.74-51.25%) and energy (249-258 Kcal) when compared to white bread of 9.00, 59.40% and 301 Kcal, respectively. The ash and mineral contents of the whole wheat breads were higher than that of white bread. While the viable microbial counts for the whole wheat breads (1.0×102-1.5×102) were lower than in the white bread (3.1×102). Generally, the bread samples were within the regulatory specifications and the whole wheat breads were nutritionally superior to the white bread while the white bread had better overall sensory preference than the whole wheat breads. © 2013 Maxwell Scientific Organization.
Bread; Chemical compositions; Comparative evaluations; Hydration capacity; Sensory preferences; Sensory qualities; Whole wheat; Whole-wheat breads; Chemistry; Food technology; Minerals; Food products