Physical and microbiological evaluation of food formulations from malted and fermented Maize (Zea mays L.) Fortified with Defatted Sesame (Sesamun indicum L.) Flour
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
The effects of malting and fermentation on some physical properties and microbiological composition and safety of maize/sesame food formulations were investigated. Malted and fermented maize flours were blended with defatted sesame flour, by material balancing, to give four food formulations (Unmalted maize + defatted sesame (UMS), malted maize + defatted sesame (MMS), un-malted fermented maize + defatted sesame (UFMS) and malted fermented maize + defatted sesame (MFMS)), which all contained 16 g protein and 9 g fat/100 g food. Viscosity, functional properties and microbiological composition of flours and gruels from the food formulations were evaluated using standard methods of analysis. Malting and fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased gruel viscosities from 318.00 to 210.70 cP, packed bulk density from 1.08 to 0.97 g/mL and swelling index from 4.43 to 2.93 mL/g; while increasing water absorption capacity from 3.30 to 4.07 g/g and reconstitution index from 5.02 to 6.13 mL/g in UMS and MFMS samples respectively. Total viable counts, yeasts and moulds all increased significantly (p<0.05) with malting and fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus species were predominant in the non-fermented products, while yeast dominated in the fermented products, whose gruels also inhibited growth of Staphylococcus in challenge tests. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012.
Bulk density; Challenge tests; Enterobacteriaceae; Functional properties; G protein; Gruel; Inhibited growth; Maize (Zea mays L.); Maize flour; Material balancing; Microbiological composition; Microbiological evaluation; Standard method; Swelling index; Total viable counts; Water absorption capacity; Fermentation; Molds; Viscosity; Yeast; Grain (agricultural product)