Evaluation of self-care practices and emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in dar es salaam, tanzania
Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Clinical Nursing, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
This study was conducted to determine self-care practices and diabetes related emotional distress among people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross sectional survey-involving 121 Types 2 diabetics was conducted in 4 diabetic clinics located in Dar es Salaam. Anthropometric and biomedical measurements namely weight, height, waist, hip, mid-upper arm circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were measured. Self-care practices and diabetic related emotion distress were evaluated by using validated instruments. Results revealed that, the average fasting plasma glucose was 11.2 ± 5.5 mmol/l, blood pressure was 134.7/86.1 mm/Hg and the mean BMI for males and females were 25.0 ± 4.3 and 27.0 ± 5.1 kg/m2, respectively. Subject's self-care score for general diet, specific diet, physical exercise, foot-care and medication were 4.6 ± 2.4, 3.7 ± 1.5, 3.4 ± 1.8, 3.6 v 2.8 and 5.5 ± 2.8 days per week, respectively. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was irregular and only 46.3% of the subjects tested their levels of blood glucose at least once in between the appointments (90 days). Low income was the major limitation for complying with the self-care practices related to diet, blood glucose testing and medication. It is recommended that, the Government of Tanzania should in the short run subsidize the prices of diabetes drugs, remove all taxes on the glucose test kits and establish a national diabetes program that would coordinate and oversee provision of the basic services such as screening, glucose testing, medication, counseling and management of the condition. In the long run, the government should establish a preventive public health program in order to curtail the escalation of diabetes. Further research should be conducted to determine how factors such as socio-cultural and demographic, self-care, and psychosocial distress interact to determine biomedical outcomes such as blood pressure, blood glucose and body mass index.
drug; body mass; diabetes; glucose; public health; adult; aged; article; blood glucose monitoring; blood pressure; body mass; cross-sectional study; diet; emotion; exercise; female; glucose blood level; human; male; mental stress; metabolism; middle aged; non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; poverty; psychological aspect; self care; Tanzania; Adult; Aged; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diet; Emotions; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Poverty; Self Care; Stress, Psychological; Tanzania; Africa; Dar es Salaam [Tanzania]; East Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania