Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Mbaa River and the impact on aquatic ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of heavy metals have caused ecological damage to aquatic ecosystem. In this study, concentration of heavy metals including zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, and copper were determined in the sediment and water as well as in the muscle, gill, and intestine of two fish species (Pelmatochromis guentheri and Pelmatochromis pulcher) of Mbaa River in Southeastern Nigeria. Samples were collected at three different spots from the river, and the level of heavy metals specified above were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after a modified wet digestion process. The results indicated that sediment had the highest concentration of the heavy metals investigated while water had the lowest concentration. Fish tissues showed appreciable bioaccumulation of these metals as evidenced by a higher concentration profile when compared with that of water. Furthermore, the concentration of these heavy metals in water and their bioconcentration factor in the fish were above the recommended limit by WHO and FEPA, indicating that Mbaa River along Inyishi may not be suitable for drinking nor the fish safe for human consumption. The study also reveals the use of fish as bioindicator of aquatic environment. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Absorption spectroscopy; Aquatic ecosystems; Atomic absorption spectrometry; Bioaccumulation; Biochemistry; Chemical contamination; Copper; Ecology; Ecosystems; Fish; Heavy metals; Pollution; Potable water; Rivers; Water resources; Accumulation; Aquatic environments; Atomic absorption spectroscopy; Bio-concentration factors; Concentration profiles; Ecological damage; Human consumption; Southeastern Nigeria; River pollution; cadmium; copper; heavy metal; iron; lead; water; zinc; aquatic ecosystem; bioaccumulation; cichlid; ecological impact; heavy metal; pollution effect; animal tissue; aquatic environment; Article; atomic absorption spectrometry; bioaccumulation; bioconcentration factor; concentration (parameters); controlled study; environmental impact; exposure; freshwater fish; health hazard; Nigeria; nonhuman; Pelmatochromis guentheri; Pelmatochromis pulcher; risk assessment; river; sediment; tissue level; water contamination; Nigeria; Pelmatochromis; Pelvicachromis pulcher