Extraction of oil from Terminalia catappa L.: Process parameter impacts, kinetics, and thermodynamics
Industrial Crops and Products
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Resources Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States; Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech Un
The effects of temperature, time, solvent type, and particle size on oil yield as well as the effects of these parameters (particle size, time, and temperature) on the kinetics and thermodynamics parameters (enthalpy, entropy, and free energy) of oil extraction from Terminalia catappa L. kernel (TCK) were investigated. Among the different extractions solvents examined, n-hexane gave the highest oil yield of 60.45% (by weight) at 55°C, 150min, and 0.5mm particle size. Findings from the physicochemical properties investigation revealed that the viscosity, acidity, and dielectric strength of the TCK oil were 20.29mm2s-1, 4.73mg KOH/g oil, and 30.61kV, suggesting the potential suitability of TCK oil as transformer oil. Analysis of the chemical composition of the TCK oil indicated that it is composed of 43.89% and 56.1% saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The kinetics of the TCK oil extraction was better described by the pseudo second order model compared to hyperbolic and Elovich models. The δG, δS, and δH values of the TCK oil extraction process were -28.76kJ/mol, 0.643kJ/mol, and 182.81kJ/mol, respectively, indicating spontaneous, irreversible, and endothermic process. © 2015.
Chemical analysis; Enzyme kinetics; Extraction; Fatty acids; Free energy; Hexane; Kinetics; Particle size; Solvent extraction; Solvents; Temperature; Thermodynamics; Unsaturated fatty acids; Chemical compositions; Dielectric strengths; Effects of temperature; Endothermic process; Kinetics and thermodynamics; Physicochemical property; Pseudo-second order model; Terminalia catappa L; Oil filled transformers; Terminalia catappa