Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits
Journal of Water and Health
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Virginia, Thornton Hall, 351 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Bliss Hall 213, Kingston, RI 02881, United States; Department of Public Health Sciences, Public Health Sciences Hospital West, University of Virginia, PO Box 800717, Charlottesville, VA 3181, United States; Department of Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo Province, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, PO Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA, United States
Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Median reduction of total coliform bacteria was 100% at enrollment and final collection. CWFs are an acceptable technology that can significantly improve the quality of household water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa. © IWA Publishing 2014.
drinking water; silver nanoparticle; ceramics; diarrheal disease; drinking water; human immunodeficiency virus; nanotechnology; public health; rural area; technological change; water treatment; water use; adult; article; ceramic water fillter; coliform bacterium; container; controlled study; Cryptosporidium; diarrhea; environmental sanitation; feces culture; female; filter; household; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; incidence; male; pilot study; randomized controlled trial; South Africa; water quality; water sampling; water supply; water treatment; Limpopo; South Africa; Adult; Ceramics; Cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium; Diarrhea; Drinking Water; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriaceae Infections; Feces; Female; Filtration; HIV Seropositivity; Humans; Male; Metal Nanoparticles; Middle Aged; Pilot Projects; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rural Population; Silver; South Africa; Water Purification; Water Quality; Young Adult
NSF, National Science Foundation