SANI ® process realizes sustainable saline sewage treatment: Steady state model-based evaluation of the pilot-scale trial of the process
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon. Hong Kong, China; Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, NL-2628 BC Delft, Netherlands; KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Netherlands
A steady state model was developed for evaluating the sulfur cycle based SANI ® process. The model comprises: 1) a COD-based anaerobic hydrolysis kinetics model to determine removal of biodegradable COD and sulfate under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT), 2) an element (C, H, O, N, P, S), COD and charge mass balanced stoichiometric part for prediction of the concentrations of alkalinity (H2CO3* alkalinity + H 2S alkalinity), COD, sulfate, sulfide, nitrate and free saline ammonia in anaerobic sulfate reduction, anoxic autotrophic denitrification and aerobic autotrophic nitrification, and 3) an inorganic carbon (HCO3-) and sulfide (H 2S/HS -) mixed weak acid/base chemistry part for pH prediction. Through characterization of the sewage organic matter and determination of the anaerobic hydrolysis kinetic rate and other relevant parameters, the steady state model was calibrated to a pilot plant for the SANI ® process. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data of the pilot-scale trial, demonstrating that the model developed from this study can explain the causes and conditions for the different bioprocesses and minimal sludge production in the SANI ® process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Anaerobic hydrolysis; Autotrophic denitrification; Bioprocesses; Experimental data; Hydraulic retention time; Inorganic carbon; Model prediction; Model-based evaluation; Pilot scale; Sludge production; Sludge retention time; Steady state; Steady-state models; Sulfate reduction; Sulfur cycles; Weak acid/base chemistry; Alkalinity; Anoxic sediments; Denitrification; Hydrolysis; pH; Pilot plants; Saline water; Sewage treatment; Sulfur; Water supply; Sulfur compounds; ammonia; bicarbonate; carbon; hydrogen; nitrate; nitrogen; oxygen; phosphorus; sodium chloride; sulfate; sulfide; sulfur; volatile organic compound; alkalinity; anoxic conditions; biodegradation; hydrolysis; mass balance; nitrification; organic matter; pH; reaction kinetics; retention; sewage; steady-state equilibrium; sulfur cycle; water supply; alkalinity; anaerobic digestion; article; bioreactor; chemical composition; chemical oxygen demand; denitrification; hydrolysis; nitrification; pH measurement; priority journal; reduction; sewage treatment; statistical model; steady state; stoichiometry; suspended particulate matter; Anaerobiosis; Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis; Denitrification; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Hydrolysis; Models, Biological; Nitrification; Oxidation-Reduction; Pilot Projects; Seawater; Sewage; Sulfates; Waste Disposal, Fluid; Water Pollutants, Chemical