Malocclusion and its impact on quality of life of school children in Nigeria [La malocclusion dentaire et son impact sur la qualité de vie des enfants scolarisés au Nigéria]
West African Journal of Medicine
Department of Child Dental Health, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
BACKGROUND: Malocclusion, though not life-threatening, is an important public health issue, which has a large impact on the individual, causing discomfort, social and functional limitations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate objectively orthodontic treatment needs in Nigerian schoolchildren and the impact of malocclusion on their quality of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved schoolchildren aged 12 to 16 years from four randomly selected secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. A prestructured questionnaire was administered and a clinical examination was conducted. Occlusal status was assessed for each subject using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) was also evaluated. RESULTS: There were 410 (50.9%) females and 395 (49.1%) males aged 12 to 16 years. Mean age was 14.5 ± 1.3 years. Irregularity of teeth was the most prevalent malocclusion. Generalised spacing and midline diastema were seen in 59% and 31% respectively; crowding in 43% of the schoolchildren. Other occlusal anomalies were recorded. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes. Over one third of the study population did not need treatment, treatment was mandatory in 24.3%, elective in 21% and highly desirable in 17%. More females than males did not need orthodontic treatment. Oral conditions had no effect on the quality of life of 85.3% of the study sample. CONCLUSION: Most Nigerian schoolchildren were found to have a dental appearance that needed orthodontic treatment. However, components of the oral conditions impacted on the quality of life of a few subjects. Psycho-social need is very important in orthodontic diagnosis.
adolescent; article; child; clinical assessment tool; clinical examination; cross-sectional study; Dental Aesthetic Index; diastema; female; human; major clinical study; male; malocclusion; Nigeria; Oral Health Impact Profile 14; orthodontics; prevalence; quality of life; school child; structured questionnaire; dental care; health; malocclusion; needs assessment; Nigeria; pathophysiology; psychological aspect; questionnaire; school; sex ratio; social class; socioeconomics; statistics; Adolescent; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Esthetics, Dental; Female; Humans; Male; Malocclusion; Needs Assessment; Nigeria; Oral Health; Prevalence; Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Schools; Sex Distribution; Social Class; Socioeconomic Factors