Epidemiological aspects and economic impact of bovine theileriosis (East Coast fever) and its control: A preliminary assessment with special reference to Kibaha district, Tanzania
Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
A cross-sectional study based on clinical examination, inspection of herd health records and a questionnaire was designed to determine the epidemiology, economics and potential impact of immunisation against theileriosis in Tanzania. The results showed annual theileriosis costs to be US$ 205.40 per head, whereas the introduction of immunisation reduced this by 40-68% depending on the post immunisation dipping strategy adopted. Morbidity risk due to theileriosis was 0.048 in immunised and 0.235 in non-immunised cattle, and the difference was significant (χ2 = 66.7; P = 0.000). The questionnaire results indicated that immunised cattle had a significantly (χ2 = 6; P = 0.015) higher risk of anaplasmosis compared with non-immunised cattle, whereas the risk of bovine babesiosis did not differ significantly (χ2 = 0.06; P = 0.807) between the two groups. Mortality risk due to anaplasmosis was 0.046 in immunised and 0.018 in non-immunised cattle and this difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.48; P = 0.043). The theileriosis mortality risk was 0.203 in the non-immunised cattle, while the risk was 0.009 in the immunised cattle and these differences were also significant (χ2 = 103; P = 0.000). It was concluded that farmers who have immunised their cattle may cautiously cut down acaricide application by 50% for extensively grazed herds and by 75% for zero grazed animals depending on the level of tick challenge at the herd level. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
acaricide; agricultural worker; anaplasmosis; animal experiment; animal model; animal parasitosis; article; babesiosis; cattle disease; clinical examination; controlled study; cost benefit analysis; economic evaluation; epidemiological data; grazing; herd; immunization; medical record; morbidity; mortality; nonhuman; prevalence; questionnaire; statistical significance; Tanzania; Animals; Cattle; Cross-Sectional Studies; Data Collection; Insecticides; Protozoan Vaccines; Tanzania; Theileriasis; Tick Control; Vaccination; Animalia; Bos; Bovinae; Ixodida