Short-term toxicological evaluation of Terminalia catappa, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Calophyllum inophyllum seed oils in rats
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Universit
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of feeding the oils of Calophyllum inophyllum, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Terminalia catappa to rats. The effects on physical appearance, feed intake, weight gain, plasma and tissue cholesterol and triacyglycerol levels in rats with 5% of the oils in normal rat feed were determined. Weekly monitoring of the rats showed good physical appearance and steady weight gain, with no mortality recorded for the period of the study. Haematological analysis of the rats indicated that they were not anaemic. Histopathotogical examination of the sections of the heart, liver, kidney and spleen revealed moderate (T. catappa oil) to severe fatty change and necrosis in the liver. Glomerulonephrotic changes in the kidneys of rats fed with T. catappa oil were moderate, while it was severe in the group fed with P. macrophylla oil. Severe myocardiac necrosis as well as atherosclerotic clefts in vasa vasori was observed in the vasa vasori of the hearts of rats fed with P. macrophylla oil. This change was moderate in the heart of rats fed with C. inophyllum, while no such observation was made in the group fed with T. catappa oil. There was a significant difference in the plasma cholesterol levels of the rats fed with C. inophyllum and T. catappa oils when compared with the control rats, while those fed with P. macrophylla oil had no significant difference. The oil of T. catappa appears more suitable for consumption than the oils from C. inophyllum and P. macrophylla. Fatty acid analysis of the oils showed that they have high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major ones. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
calophyllum inophyllum extract; pentaclethra macrophylla extract; plant extract; Terminalia catappa extract; unclassified drug; vegetable oil; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; Calophyllum; Calophyllum inophyllum; controlled study; histopathology; medicinal plant; monitoring; nonhuman; parameter; pentaclethra macrophylla; plant seed; rat; Terminalia; toxicity testing; Calophyllum inophyllum; Pentaclethra macrophylla; Rattus; Terminalia catappa