Impact of a widely cultivated tree (Moringa oleifera) on the health of commercially important hybrid catfish
Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Department of Biology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, P.M.B. 11, Lapai, Niger-State, Nigeria
Plantations of the tree Moringa oleifera often lead to increas levels of leaf dust in nearby freshwater environments, and there is concern that, this could have a negative impact on catfish, which are important for aquaculture. Therefore, this study, determined the biochemical alterations in serum, liver and kidney of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus (♀) × Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. oleifera leaf dust in a static renewable bioassay system during a medium term exposure period. The fish (mean length, 16.33 cm, mean weight, 9.90 g) were exposed to 0.16, 0.12, 0.08, 0.04 and 0.00 mg/L concentrations of the plant leaf dust in triplicate exposure. After 21-days of exposure period, the fish were sacrificed for the biochemical parameters: glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Fish exposed to leaf dust showed significant differences (P<0.05) in levels of gamma glutamyltransferase serum, liver and kidney, and also in levels of albumin and cholesterol (P<0.05), in the liver and kidney. The levels of glucose and triglycerides were significantly different (P<0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, while, the other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05), in the liver and kidney, respectively, in the test fish. Other parameters were not significantly different (P>0.05) in their respective tissue-organs. Ipso-facto, the alteration in biochemical parameters of hybrid catfish exposed to M. oleifera leaf dust was concentration dependent with 0.16 mg/L showing the highest negative alterations thus fish exposed to concentrations above 0.16 mg/L for longer durations may suffer impaired health effects.
aquaculture; bioassay; biochemical composition; concentration (composition); cultivation; dicotyledon; freshwater environment; glucose; plantation; serum; teleost; Clarias gariepinus; Heterobranchus bidorsalis; Moringa oleifera