Kolaviron, a Garcinia kola Biflavonoid Complex, Protects Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Pertinent Mechanistic Insights from Biochemical and Physical Evaluations in Rat Brain
Department of Biochemistry, The Federal University of Technology, School of Sciences, Akure, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ciencias Biologicas-biofisica, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chag
The pathophysiology of stroke is characterized by biochemical and physical alterations in the brain. Modulation of such aberrations by therapeutic agents affords insights into their mechanism of action. Incontrovertible evidences that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders have brought antioxidative compounds, especially plant phytochemicals, under increasing focus as potential remedies for the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garciniakola Heckel (Guttiferae) was evaluated for neuroprotectivity in brains of male Wistar rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Animals were divided into six groups: sham treated, vehicle (I/R), 50 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 100 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 200 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R and quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p.) + I/R. The common carotid arteries were occluded for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relative brain weight and brain water content were determined and oxidative stress and neurochemical markers were also evaluated. I/R caused significant decreases in glutathione level and the activities of enzymic antioxidants, the sodium pump and acetylcholinesterase while significant increases were recorded in relative brain weight, brain water content, lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutamine synthetase and myeloperoxidase. There was a remarkable ablation of I/R induced oxidative stress, neurochemical aberrations and brain edema in animals pretreated with kolaviron. The results suggested that the protection afforded by kolaviron probably involved regulation of redox and electrolyte homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and antiexcitotoxic mechanisms. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.