Evaluation of the acetone and aqueous extracts of mature stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea for antioxidant and antimicrobial properties
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Tanih, N.F., Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Ndip, R.N., Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.1560.625mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.31251.25mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery. Copyright © 2012 Nicoline F. Tanih and Roland N. Ndip.
1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; 2,2' azinobis(3 ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulfonic acid); acetone; amphotericin B; antiinfective agent; antioxidant; ciprofloxacin; flavonoid; flavonol; plant extract; quercetin; scavenger; sclerocarya birrea extract; tannin; unclassified drug; Aeromonas hydrophila; agar diffusion; Anacardiaceae; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; article; bark; Candida glabrata; Candida krusei; controlled study; Cryptococcus neoformans; drug activity; drug screening; drug sensitivity; medicinal plant; minimum inhibitory concentration; nonhuman; plant stem; Plesiomonas shigelloides; priority journal; Salmonella typhimurium; Sclerocarya birrea; spectrophotometry; Streptococcus pyogenes; Trichosporon