The impact of macroeconomic and demographic factors on savings mobilisation in Nigeria
Department of Banking and Finance, College of Agribusiness and Financial Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
The role of savings in the economic growth of Nigeria cannot be over-emphasised. However, rapid population growth has posed a serious problem to savings mobilisation. A high dependency ratio of the population will require substantial increase in future spending on health, education and care for dependants. This envisaged decline in the working-age population could lead to lower savings and investment rates and slower GDP growth. Against this background, this paper examines the impact of dependency ratio on savings mobilisation in Nigeria using a number of macroeconomic indicators that influence savings. Nigerian data on relevant variables covering the period under investigation were utilised for the study. A multiple regression approach that incorporated an error-correction model was used for our data analysis and tests. The results suggested that savings ratio is determined by spread between lending and savings deposit rates (SLS), domestic inflation rate, real interest rate and foreign private investment (FPI). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) demographic factors seem to have played a positive and insignificant role in explaining the savings ratio in over two decades studied, (2) interest rates spread leads savings ratio, (3) domestic inflation rate has a negative and significant impact on savings ratio, and (4) foreign capital inflows, as measured by FPI positively and significantly affect savings ratio in Nigeria. The findings of this research will guide policy makers on economic growth and poverty reduction in countries of sub-Saharan Africa.
capital flow; demographic trend; economic growth; Gross Domestic Product; inflation; interest rate; investment; macroeconomics; multiple regression; population growth; poverty alleviation; savings; Nigeria